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Infertility: Causes, Types, And Available Treatment Options

Infertility: Causes, Types, And Available Treatment Options
Infertility: Causes, Types, And Available Treatment Options

Infertility is the inability of a couple (man and woman) to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

This condition has over time given rise to anxiety, emotional stress, depression, and low self-esteem. You are definitely not alone if you suffer from this, my heart goes out to you.

15% of couples of reproductive age amounting to 48.5 million couples globally are infertile according to research.

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Types of infertility

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Primary infertility: this refers to the inability of a couple of reproductive age to achieve pregnancy after at least one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

Secondary infertility: in this case of infertility you have been able to achieve a pregnancy at least once but are now unable to do so following many months of sex without using birth control methods after the previous.

Causes of infertility In females:

Congenital abnormalities
Tubal blockage
Reproductive tract infections
Cervical stenosis
Hormonal imbalance
Polycystic ovary syndrome

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Causes of infertility in males:

Poor quality of semen
Undescended testes
Vasal of duct blockage
Premature ejaculation
Erectile failure
Presence of medical conditions such as liver cirrhosis
Testicular trauma or injury
Reproductive tract infections
Hormonal imbalance
Chromosomal defects

Causes of infertility In both male and female

Wrong timing of sexual intercourse
Regular sexual intercourse
Immunological questions
Excessive alcohol consumption
Eating disorders

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Diagnostic findings for infertility

The following tests could help determine the presence of diagnostic findings.
In women
Ovulation testing
Ovarian reserve testing
Imaging tests
Endometrial biopsy
Endocrine investigation

In men:

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Semen analysis
Hormone testing
Genetic testing
Testicular biopsy
Imaging tests
Urine analysis

Treatment options for infertility

A number of treatment options have been made available in order for couples battling with infertility to make choices. These treatment options include;

1. Fertility drugs: the production of quality of eggs and sperm in a human full stop is fertility drugs available for the treatment of infertility. They include follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) drug, Ganielix acetate, Dopamine antagonist, and a host of others.

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2. Surgeries: Different surgical procedures are made available as corrective measures for infertility. Laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, vasectomy reversal, and varicocelectomy are surgical operated widely used today.

3. In vitro fertilization: this is a method of assisted reproduction in which a man’s sperm and a woman’s egg are combined outside of the body in a laboratory disc. One or more centralized eggs may then be transferred into the woman’s uterus, where they implant in the uterine lining and develop.

The IVF cycle may take about two months. This option, although widely practiced, is not accessible and affordable by the general public as a result of its huge cost.

4. Ovulation induction: absence of a woman’s period could be put in check by using treatment options that help to induce menstruation. Ovulation induction is commonly used in women with irregular periods or total absence of menstruation.

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5. Assisted reproductive technology: this includes all fertility treatment options in which both eggs are sperms are involved. The eggs are surgically removed from the woman’s ovaries and then combined with sperm in the laboratory after which the result is returned to the woman’s body or donated to another woman known as a surrogate mother. Assisted reproductive technology has over time for example multiple pregnancies.

6. Intrauterine insemination: this is an artificial insemination method in which sperm that has been washed and concentrated is placed in the uterus after the time when the woman’s ovaries are expected to have released their egg. The sperm finds its way into the fallopian tubes, fertilizes the egg, and results in a pregnancy.

Bottom line:

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Inability to achieve a pregnancy after a year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse is one of the rising challenges in couples. Lifestyle habits and several congenital factors are contributing causes of infertility. Artificial reproductive technology, fertility drugs, and surgical operations are variants of options that couples can choose from today

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